In addition to the effects of climate change, land use change is expected to trigger dynamic processes that may shift alpine tree lines upwards. To gain a conceptual understanding of the spatio-temporal processes shaping tree line patterns, we developed an individual-based and spatially-explicit model of spontaneous forest regeneration at the alpine tree line. The model presented here predicts patterns of natural forest regeneration on a summer pasture in the Austrian Central Alps between 1954 and 2006.
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